II. Concept of Operations



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Section Contents


A. Introduction


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The concept of operations for a response provides for the designation of one agency as the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and for the establishment of onscene, interagency response centers. The FRERP describes both the responsibilities of the LFA and other Federal agencies that may be involved and the functions of each of the onscene centers.

The concept of operations recognizes the preeminent role of State and local governments for determining and implementing any measures to protect life, property, and the environment in areas not under the control of a Federal agency.


B. Determination of Lead Federal Agency (LFA)


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The agency that is responsible for leading and coordinating all aspects of the Federal response is referred to as the LFA and is determined by the type of emergency. In situations where a Federal agency owns, authorizes, regulates, or is otherwise deemed responsible for the facility or radiological activity causing the emergency and has authority to conduct and manage Federal actions onsite, that agency normally will be the LFA.

The following identifies the LFA for each specified type of radiological emergency.

1. Nuclear Facility

a. Licensed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an Agreement State

The NRC is the LFA for an emergency that occurs at a fixed facility or regarding an activity licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State. These include, but are not limited to, commercial nuclear power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, DOE-owned gaseous diffusion facilities that are operating under NRC regulatory oversight, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers.

b. Owned or Operated by DOD or DOE

The LFA is either DOD or DOE, depending on which agency owns or authorizes operation of the facility. These emergencies may involve reactor operations, nuclear material and weapons production, radioactive material from nuclear weapons, or other radiological activities.

c. Not Licensed, Owned, or Operated by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State

The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that occurs at a facility not licensed, owned, or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement State. These include facilities that possess, handle, store, or process radium or accelerator-produced radioactive materials.

2. Transportation of Radioactive Materials

a. Shipment of Materials Licensed by NRC or an Agreement State

The NRC is the LFA for an emergency that involves radiological material licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State.

b. Materials Shipped by or for DOD or DOE

The LFA is either DOD or DOE depending on which of these agencies has custody of the material at the time of the accident.

c. Shipment of Materials Not Licensed or Owned by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State

The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that involves radiological material not licensed or owned by a Federal agency or an Agreement State.

3. Satellites Containing Radioactive Materials

NASA is the LFA for NASA spacecraft missions. DOD is the LFA for DOD spacecraft missions. DOE and EPA provide technical assistance to DOD and NASA.

In the event of an emergency involving a joint U.S. Government and foreign government spacecraft venture containing radioactive sources and/or classified components, the LFA will be DOD or NASA, as appropriate. A joint U.S./foreign venture is defined as an activity in which the U.S. Government has an ongoing interest in the successful completion of the mission and is intimately involved in mission operations. A joint venture is not created by simply selling or supplying material to a foreign country for use in their spacecraft. DOE and EPA will provide technical support and assistance to the LFA.

4. Impact from Foreign or Unknown Source

The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that involves radioactive material from a foreign or unknown source that has actual, potential, or perceived radiological consequences in the United States, its Territories, possessions, or territorial waters. The foreign or unknown source may be a reactor (e.g., Chernobyl), a spacecraft containing radioactive material, radioactive fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices, imported radioactively contaminated material, or a shipment of foreign-owned radioactive material. Unknown sources of radioactive material refers to that material whose origin and/or radiological nature is not yet established. These types of sources include contaminated scrap metal or abandoned radioactive material. DOD, DOE, NASA, and NRC provide technical assistance to EPA.

5. Other Types of Emergencies

In the event of an unforeseen type of emergency not specifically described in this Plan or a situation where conditions exist involving overlapping responsibility that could cause confusion regarding LFA role and responsibilities, DOD, DOE, EPA, NASA, and NRC will confer upon receipt of notification of the emergency to determine which agency is the LFA.

Table II-1.-Identification of Lead Federal Agency for Radiological Emergencies
Type of emergency Lead Federal agency
1. Nuclear Facility:
   a. Licensed by NRC or an Agreement State NRC
b. Owned or Operated by DOD or DOE DOD or DOE
c. Not Licensed, Owned, or Operated by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State EPA
2. Transportation of Radioactive Materials:
   a. Shipment of Materials Licensed by NRC or an NRC. Agreement State NRC
b. Materials Shipped by or for DOD or DOE DOD or DOE
c. Shipment of Materials Not Licensed or Owned by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State EPA
3. Satellites Containing Radioactive Materials NASA or DOD
4. Impact from Foreign or Unknown Source EPA
5. Other Types of Emergencies LFAs confer


C. Radiological Sabotage and Terrorism


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For fixed facilities and materials in transit, responses to radiological emergencies generally do not depend on the initiating event. The coordinated response to contain or mitigate a threatened or actual release of radioactive material would be essentially the same whether it resulted from an accidental or deliberate act. For malevolent acts involving improvised nuclear or radiation dispersal devices, the response is further complicated by the magnitude of the threat and the need for specialized technical expertise/actions. Therefore, sabotage and terrorism are not treated as separate types of emergencies rather, they are considered a complicating dimension of the types listed in Table II-1.

The Atomic Energy Act directs the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to investigate all alleged or suspected criminal violations of the Act. Additionally, the FBI is legally responsible for locating any nuclear weapon, device, or material and for restoring nuclear facilities to their rightful custodians. In view of its unique responsibilities under the Atomic Energy Act (amended by the Energy Reorganization Act), the FBI has concluded formal agreements with the LFAs that provide for interface, coordination, and technical assistance in support of the FBI's mission.

Generally, for fixed facilities and materials in transit, the designated LFA and supporting agencies will perform the functions delineated in this plan and provide technical support and assistance to the FBI in the performance of its mission. It would be difficult to outline all the possible scenarios arising from criminal or terrorist activity. As a result, the Federal response will be tailored to the specific circumstances of the event at hand. For those emergencies where an LFA is not specifically designated (e.g., improvised nuclear device), the Federal response will be guided by the established interagency agreements and contingency plans. In accordance with these agreements and plans, the signatory agency(ies) supporting the FBI will coordinate and manage the technical portion of the response and activate/request assistance under the FRERP for measures to protect the public health and safety. In all cases, the FBI will manage and direct the law enforcement and intelligence aspects of the response coordinating activities with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies within the framework of the FRERP and/or as provided for in established interagency agreements or plans.


D. Response Functions and Responsibilities


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1. Onscene Coordination

The LFA will lead and coordinate all Federal onscene actions and assist State and local governments in determining measures to protect life, property, and the environment. The LFA will ensure that FEMA and other Federal agencies assist the State and local government agencies in implementing protective actions, if requested by the State and local government agencies.

The LFA will coordinate Federal response activities from an onscene location, referred to as the Joint Operations Center (JOC). Until the LFA has established its base of operations in a JOC, the LFA will accomplish that coordination from another LFA facility, usually a Headquarters operations center.

In the absence of existing agreements for radiological emergencies occurring on or with possible consequences to Indian tribal lands, DOI will provide liaison between federally recognized Indian tribal governments and LFA, State, and local agencies for coordination of response and protective action efforts. Additionally, DOI will advise and assist the LFA on economic, social, and political matters in the United States insular areas should a radiological emergency occur.

2. Onsite Management

The LFA will oversee the onsite response monitor and support owner or operator activities (when there is an owner or operator) provide technical support to the owner or operator, if requested and serve as the principal Federal source of information about onsite conditions. The LFA will provide a hazard assessment of onsite conditions that might have significant offsite impact and ensure onsite measures are taken to mitigate offsite consequences.

3. Radiological Monitoring and Assessment

DOE has the initial responsibility for coordinating the offsite Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance during the response to a radiological emergency. In a prolonged response, EPA will assume the responsibility for coordinating the assistance at some mutually agreeable time, usually after the emergency phase.

Some of the participating Federal agencies may have radiological planning and emergency responsibilities as part of their statutory authority, as well as established working relationships with State counterpart agencies. The monitoring and assessment activity, coordinated by DOE, does not alter those responsibilities but complements them by providing for coordination of the initial Federal radiological monitoring and assessment response activity.

Activities will:

Federal offsite monitoring and assessment activities will be coordinated with those of the State. Federal agency plans and procedures for implementing this monitoring and assessment activity are designed to be compatible with the radiological emergency planning requirements for State, local governments, specific facilities, and existing memoranda of understanding and interagency agreements.

DOE may respond to a State or LFA request for assistance by dispatching a Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) team. If the situation requires more assistance than a RAP team can provide, DOE will alert or activate additional resources. These resources may include the establishment of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) to be used as an onscene coordination center for Federal radiological assessment activities. Federal and State agencies are encouraged to collocate their radiological assessment activities.

Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities will be activated as a component of an FRERP response or pursuant to a direct request from State or local governments, other Federal agencies, licensees for radiological materials, industries, or the general public after evaluating the magnitude of the problem and coordinating with the State(s) involved.

DOE and other participating Federal agencies may learn of an emergency when they are alerted to a possible problem or receive a request for radiological assistance. DOE will maintain national and regional coordination offices as points of access to Federal radiological emergency assistance. Requests for Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance will generally be directed to the appropriate DOE radiological assistance Regional Coordinating Office. Requests also can go directly to DOE's Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, DC. When other agencies receive requests for Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance, they will promptly notify the DOE EOC.

a. Role of Department of Energy (DOE)
(1) Initial Response Coordination Responsibility. DOE, as coordinator, has the following responsibilities:
(a) Coordinate Federal offsite radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities
(b) Maintain technical liaison with State and local agencies with monitoring and assessment responsibilities
(c) Maintain a common set of all offsite radiological monitoring data, in an accountable, secure, and retrievable form, and ensure the technical integrity of the FRMAC data
(d) Provide monitoring data and interpretations, including exposure rate contours, dose projections, and any other requested radiological assessments, to the LFA, and to the States
(e) Provide, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, the personnel and equipment needed to perform radiological monitoring and assessment activities
(f) Request supplemental assistance and technical support from other Federal agencies as needed and
(g) Arrange consultation and support services through appropriate Federal agencies to all other entities (e.g., private contractors) with radiological monitoring functions and capabilities, and technical and medical advice on handling radiological contamination and population monitoring.
(2) Transition of Response Coordination Responsibility. The DOE FRMAC Director will work closely with the Senior EPA representative to facilitate a smooth transition of the Federal radiological monitoring and assessment coordination responsibility to EPA at a mutually agreeable time and after consultation with the States and LFA. The following conditions are intended to be met prior to this transfer:
(a) The immediate emergency condition has been stabilized
(b) Offsite releases of radioactive material have ceased, and there is little or no potential for further unintentional offsite releases
(c) The offsite radiological conditions have been characterized and the immediate consequences have been assessed
(d) An initial long-range monitoring plan has been developed in conjunction with the affected States and appropriate Federal agencies and
(e) EPA has received adequate assurances from the other Federal agencies that they will commit the required resources, personnel, and funds for the duration of the Federal response.
b. Role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Prior to assuming responsibility for the FRMAC, EPA will:

(1) Provide resources, including personnel, equipment, and laboratory support (including mobile laboratories), to assist DOE in monitoring radioactivity levels in the environment
(2) Assume coordination of Federal radiological monitoring and assessment responsibilities from DOE after the transition
(3) Assist in the development and implementation of a long- term monitoring plan and
(4) Provide nationwide environmental monitoring data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Systems for assessing the national impact of the accident.
c. Role of the Lead Federal Agency (LFA)
(1) Ensure that State's needs are addressed.
(2) Approve the release of official Federal offsite monitoring data and assessments.
(3) Provide other available radiological monitoring data to the State and to the FRMAC.
d. Role of Other Federal Agencies

Agencies carrying out responsibilities related to radiological monitoring and assessment during a Federal response also will coordinate their activities with FRMAC. This coordination will not limit the normal working relationship between a Federal agency and its State counterparts nor restrict the flow of information from that agency to the States. The radiological monitoring and assessment responsibilities of the other Federal agencies include:

(1) Department of Agriculture (USDA)

(a) Inspect meat and meat products, poultry and poultry products, and egg products identified for interstate and foreign commerce to assure that they are safe for human consumption.
(b) Assist, in conjunction with HHS, in monitoring the production, processing, storage, and distribution of food through the wholesale level to eliminate contaminated product or to reduce the contamination in the product to a safe level.
(c) Collect agricultural samples within the Ingestion Exposure Pathway Emergency Planning Zone. Assist in the evaluation and assessment of data to determine the impact of the emergency on agriculture.
(2) Department of Commerce (DOC)
(a) Prepare operational weather forecasts tailored to support emergency response activities.
(b) Prepare and disseminate predictions of plume trajectories, dispersion, and deposition.
(c) Archive, as a special collection, the meteorological data from national observing systems applicable to the monitoring and assessment of the response.
(d) Ensure that marine fishery products available to the public are not contaminated.
(e) Provide assistance and reference material for calibrating radiological instruments.
(3) Department of Defense (DOD)
(a) Provide radiological resources to include trained response personnel, specialized radiation instruments, mobile instrument calibration, repair capabilities, and expertise in site restoration.
(b) Perform special sampling of airborne contamination on request.
(4) Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
(a) In conjunction with USDA, inspect production, processing, storage, and distribution facilities for human food and animal feeds, which may be used in interstate commerce, to assure protection of the public health.
(b) Collect samples of agricultural products to monitor and assess the extent of contamination as a basis for recommending or implementing protective actions.
(5) Department of the Interior (DOI)
(a) Provide hydrologic advice and assistance, including monitoring personnel, equipment, and laboratory support.
(b) Advise and assist in evaluating processes affecting radioisotopes in soils, including personnel, equipment, and laboratory support.
(c) Advise and assist in the development of geographical information systems (GIS) databases to be used in the analysis and assessment of contaminated areas including personnel, equipment, and databases.
(6) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
(a) Provide assistance in Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities during incidents.
(b) Provide, where available, continuous measurement of ambient radiation levels around NRC licensed facilities, primarily power reactors using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD).

4. Protective Action Recommendations

Federal protective action recommendations provide advice to State and local governments on measures that they should take to avoid or reduce exposure of the public to radiation from a release of radioactive material. This includes advice on emergency actions such as sheltering, evacuation, and prophylactic use of stable iodine. It also includes longer term measures to avoid or minimize exposure to residual radiation or exposure through the ingestion pathway such as restriction of food, temporary relocation, and permanent resettlement.

a. Role of the Lead Federal Agency (LFA)

The LFA will assist State and local authorities, if requested, by advising them on protective actions for the public. The development or evaluation of protective action recommendations will be based upon the Protective Action Guides (PAGs) issued by EPA and HHS. In providing such advice, the LFA will use advice from other Federal agencies with technical expertise on those matters whenever possible. The LFA's responsibilities for the development, evaluation, and presentation of protective action recommendations are to:

(1) Respond to requests from State and local governments for technical information and assistance
(2) Consult with representatives from EPA, HHS, USDA, and other Federal agencies as needed to provide advice to the LFA on protective actions
(3) Review all recommendations made by other Federal agencies exercising statutory authorities related to protective actions to ensure consistency
(4) Prepare a coordinated Federal position on protective action recommendations whenever time permits and
(5) Present the Federal assessment of protective action recommendations, in conjunction with FEMA and other Federal agencies when practical, to State or other offsite authorities.
b. Role of the Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health

Advice on environment, food, and health matters will be provided to the LFA through the Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health (Advisory Team) consisting of representatives of EPA, HHS, and USDA supported by other Federal agencies, as warranted by the circumstances of the emergency. The Advisory Team provides direct support to the LFA and has no independent authority. The Advisory Team will not release information or make recommendations to the public unless authorized to do so by the LFA. The Advisory Team will select a chair for the Team. The Advisory Team will normally collocate with the FRMAC.

For emergencies with potential for causing widespread radiological contamination where no onscene FRMAC is established, the functions of the Advisory Team may be accomplished in the LFA response facility in Washington, DC.

The primary role of the Advisory Team is to provide a mechanism for timely, interagency coordination of advice to the LFA, States, and other Federal agencies concerning matters related to the following areas:

(1) Environmental assessments (field monitoring) required for developing recommendations
(2) PAGs and their application to the emergency
(3) Protective action recommendations using data and assessment from the FRMAC
(4) Protective actions to prevent or minimize contamination of milk, food, and water and to prevent or minimize exposure through ingestion
(5) Recommendations regarding the disposition of contaminated livestock and poultry
(6) Recommendations for minimizing losses of agricultural resources from radiation effects
(7) Availability of food, animal feed, and water supply inspection programs to assure wholesomeness
(8) Relocation, reentry, and other radiation protection measures prior to recovery
(9) Recommendations for recovery, return, and cleanup issues
(10) Health and safety advice or information for the public and for workers
(11) Estimate effects of radioactive releases on human health and environment
(12) Guidance on the use of radioprotective substances (e.g., thyroid blocking agents), including dosage and projected radiation doses that warrant the use of such drugs and
(13) Other matters, as requested by the LFA.

5. Other Federal Resource Support

FEMA will coordinate the provision of non-radiological (i.e., not related to radiological monitoring and assessment) Federal resources and assistance to affected State and local governments. The Federal non-radiological resource and assistance coordination function will be performed at the Disaster Field Office (DFO) (or other appropriate location established by FEMA).

a. Role of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
(1) Monitor the status of the Federal response to requests for non-radiological assistance from the affected States and provide this information to the States.
(2) Keep the LFA informed of requests for assistance from the State and the status of the Federal response.
(3) Identify and inform Federal agencies of actual or apparent omissions, redundancies, or conflicts in response activity.
(4) Establish and maintain a source of integrated, coordinated information about the status of all non-radiological resource support activities.
(5) Provide other non-radiological support to Federal agencies responding to the emergency.
b. Role of Other Federal Agencies

In order to properly coordinate activities, Federal agencies responding to requests for non- radiological support or directly providing such support under statutory authorities will provide liaison personnel to the DFO. The following indicates types of assistance that may be provided by Federal agencies as needed or requested:

(1) Department of Agriculture (USDA)
(a) Provide emergency food coupon assistance in officially designated disaster areas, if a need is determined by officials and if the commercial food system is sufficient to accommodate the use of food coupons.
(b) Provide for placement of USDA donated food supplies from warehouses, local schools, and other outlets to emergency care centers. These are foods donated to various outlets through USDA food programs.
(c) Provide lists that identify locations of alternate sources of food and livestock feed.
(d) Assist in providing temporary housing for evacuees.
(e) Assess damage to crops, soil, livestock, poultry, and processing facilities and incorporate findings in a damage assessment report.
(f) Provide emergency communications assistance to the agricultural community through the State Research, Education, and Extension Services" electronic mail system.
(2) Department of Commerce (DOC)
Provide radiation shielding materials.
(3) Department of Defense (DOD)
DOD may provide assistance in the form of personnel, logistics and telecommunications, advice on proper medical treatment of personnel exposed to or contaminated by radioactive materials, and assistance, including airlift services, when available, upon the request of the LFA or FEMA. Requests for assistance must be directed to the National Military Command Center or through channels established by prior agreements.
(4) Department of Energy (DOE)-Provide advice on proper medical treatment of personnel exposed to or contaminated by radioactive materials.
(5) Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
(a) Ensure the availability of health and medical care and other human services (especially for the aged, poor, infirm, blind, and others most in need).
(b) Assist in providing crisis counseling to victims in affected geographic areas.
(c) Provide guidance to State and local health officials on disease control measures and epidemiological surveillance and study of exposed populations.
(d) Provide advice on proper medical treatment of personnel exposed to or contaminated by radioactive materials.
(e) Provide advice and guidance in assessing the impact of the effects of radiological incidents on the health of persons in the affected area.
(6) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
(a) Review and report on available housing for disaster victims and displaced persons.
(b) Assist in planning for and placing homeless victims in available housing.
(c) Provide staff to support emergency housing within available resources.
(d) Provide housing assistance and advisory personnel.
(7) Department of the Interior (DOI)
Advise and assist in assessing impacts to economic, social, and political issues relating to natural resources, including fish and wildlife, subsistence uses, public lands, Indian Tribal lands, land reclamation, mining, minerals, and water resources.
(8) Department of Transportation (DOT)
(a) Support State and local governments by identifying sources of civil transportation on request and when consistent with statutory responsibilities.
(b) Coordinate the Federal civil transportation response in support of emergency transportation plans and actions with State and local governments. (This may include provision of Federally controlled transportation assets and the controlling of airspace or transportation routes to protect commercial transportation and to facilitate the movement of response resources to the scene.)
(c) Provide Regional Emergency Transportation Coordinators and staff to assist State and local authorities in planning and response.
(d) Provide technical advice and assistance on the transportation of radiological materials and the impact of the incident on the transportation system.
(9) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
(a) Provide medical assistance using Medical Emergency Radiological Response Teams (MERRTs).
(b) Provide temporary housing.
(10) General Services Administration (GSA)
(a) Provide acquisition and procurement of floor space, telecommunications and automated data processing services, supplies, services, transportation, computers, contracting, equipment, and material as well as specified logistical services that exceed the capabilities of other Federal agencies.
(b) Activate the Regional Emergency Communications Planner (RECP) and a Federal Emergency Communications Coordinator (FECC). RECP will provide technical support and accept guidance from the FEMA Regional Director during the pre-deployment phase of a telecommunications emergency.
(c) Upon request, will dispatch the FECC to the scene to expedite the provision of the telecommunications services.
(11) National Communications System (NCS)-Acting through its operational element, the National Coordinating Center for Telecommunications (NCC), the NCS will ensure the provision of adequate telecommunications support to Federal FRERP operations.


6. Public Information Coordination

Public information coordination is most effective when the owner/operator, Federal, State, local, and other relevant information sources participate jointly. The primary location for linking these sources is the Joint Information Center (JIC).

Prior to the establishment of Federal operations at the JIC, it may be necessary to release Federal information regarding public health and safety. In these instances, Federal agencies will coordinate with the LFA and the State in advance or as soon as possible after the information has been released.

This coordination will accomplish the following: compile information about the status of the emergency, response actions, and instructions for the affected population coordinate all information from various sources with the other Federal, State, local, and non-governmental response organizations allow various sources to work cooperatively, yet maintain their independence in disseminating information disseminate timely, consistent, and accurate information to the public and the news media and establish coordinated arrangements for dealing with citizen inquiries.

a. Role of the Lead Federal Agency (LFA)

The LFA is responsible for information on the status of the overall Federal response, specific LFA response activities, and the status of onsite conditions.

The LFA will:

(1) Develop joint information procedures for providing Federal information to and for obtaining information from all Federal agencies participating in the response
(2) Work with the owner/operator and State and local government information officers to develop timely coordinated public information releases
(3) Inform the media that the JIC is the primary source of onscene public information and news from facility, local, State, and Federal spokespersons
(4) Establish and manage Federal public information operations at the JIC and
(5) Coordinate Federal public information among the various media centers.
b. Role of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

FEMA will assist the LFA in coordinating non-radiological information among Federal agencies and with the State. When mutually agreeable, FEMA may assume responsibility from the LFA for coordinating Federal public information. Should this occur, it will usually be after the onsite situation has been stabilized and recovery efforts have begun.

c. Role of Other Participating Agencies

All Federal agencies with an operational response role under the FRERP will coordinate public information activities at the JIC. Each Federal agency will provide information on the status of its response and on technical information.

7. Congressional and White House Coordination

a. Congressional Coordination

Federal agencies will coordinate their responses to Congressional requests for information with the LFA. Points of contact for this function are the Congressional Liaison Officers. All Federal agency Congressional Liaison Officers and Congressional staffs seeking site-specific information about the emergency should contact the LFA headquarters Congressional Affairs Office. Congress may request information directly from any Federal agency. Any agency responding to such requests should inform the LFA as soon as feasible.

b. White House Coordination

The LFA will report to the President and keep the White House informed on all aspects of the emergency. The White House may request information directly from any Federal agency. Any agency responding to such requests should inform the LFA as soon as feasible. The LFA will submit reports to the White House. The initial report should cover, if possible, the nature of and prognosis for the radiological situation causing the emergency and the actual or potential offsite radiological impact. Subsequent reports by the LFA should cover the status of mitigation, corrective actions, protective measures, and overall Federal response to the emergency. Federal agencies should provide information related to the technical and radiological aspects of the response directly to the LFA. FEMA will compile information related to the non-radiological resource support aspects of the response and submit to the LFA for inclusion in the report(s).

8. International Coordination

In the event of an environmental impact or potential impact upon the United States, its possessions, Territories, or territorial waters from a radiological emergency originating on foreign soil or, conversely, a domestic incident with an actual or potential foreign impact, the LFA will immediately inform DOS (which has responsibility for official interactions with foreign governments). The LFA will keep DOS informed of all Federal response activities. The DOS will coordinate notification and information gathering activities with foreign governments, except in cases where existing bilateral agreements permit direct communication. Where the LFA has existing bilateral agreements that permit direct exchange of information, those agencies should keep DOS informed of consultations with their foreign counterparts. Agency officials should take care that consultations do not exceed the scope of the relevant agreement(s). The LFA will ensure that any offers of assistance to or requests from foreign governments are coordinated with DOS.

9. Response Function Overview

Table II-2 provides an overview of the responsible Federal agencies for major response functions.

Table II-2.-Response Function Overview
Response action Responsible agency
(1) Maintain cognizance of the Federal response conduct and manage Federal onsite actions. LFA
(2) Coordinate Federal offsite radiological monitoring and assessment:
   -Initial Response DOE.
-Intermediate and Long-Term Response EPA
(3) Develop and evaluate recommendations for offsite protective actions for the public. LFA, in coordination with other agencies.
(4) Present recommendations for offsite protective actions to the appropriate State and/or local officials LFA, FEMA, in conjunction with other Federal agencies when practical.
(5) Coordinate Federal offsite non-radiological resource support. FEMA
(6) Coordinate release of Federal information to the LFA after public. mutual agreement. FEMA
(7) Coordinate release of Federal information to LFA. Congress
(8) Provide reports to the President and keep the White House informed on all aspects of the emergency. LFA
(9) Coordinate international aspects and make DOS as required international notifications. appropriate. LFA
(10) Coordinate the law enforcement aspects of a criminal act involving radioactive material. DOJ/FBI


E. Stages of the Federal Response


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The Federal response is divided into five stages: Notification, Activation and Deployment, Response Operations, Response Deactivation, and Recovery.

1. Notification

The owner or operator of the facility or radiological activity is generally the first to become aware of a radiological emergency and is responsible for notifying the State and local authorities and the LFA. The notification should include:

If any Federal agency receives notification from any source other than FEMA or the LFA, the agency will notify the LFA. See Figure II-1 for the notification process.

a. Role of the Lead Federal Agency (LFA)
(1) Verify accuracy of notification
(2) Notify FEMA and advisory team agencies and provide information
(3) Verify that other Federal agencies have been notified and
(4) Verify that the State has been notified.
b. Role of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
(1) Verify that the State has been notified of the emergency and
(2) Notify other Federal agencies as appropriate.

2. Activation and Deployment

Once notified, each agency will respond according to its plan. The LFA will assess the technical response requirements and cause the activation and deployment of response components. FEMA, in conjunction with the LFA, will coordinate the non-radiological assistance in support of State and local governments. Initially, the LFA, FEMA, and other Federal agencies will coordinate response actions from their headquarters locations, usually from their respective headquarters EOCs.

a. Role of the Lead Federal Agency (LFA)
(1) Deploy LFA response personnel to the scene and provide liaison to the State and local authorities as appropriate
(2) Designate a Federal Onscene Commander (OSC) at the scene of the emergency to manage onsite activities and coordinate the overall Federal response to the emergency
(3) Establish bases of Federal operation, such as the JOC and the JIC
(4) Coordinate the Federal response with the owner/operator and
(5) Provide advice on the radiological hazard to the Federal responders.
b. Role of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
(1) Activate a Regional Operations Center (ROC) to monitor the situation
(2) Establish contact with the LFA and the affected State to determine the status of non-radiological response requirements
(3) Designate a Senior FEMA Official (SFO) to coordinate activities with the LFA and
(4) Coordinate the provision of non-radiological Federal resources and assistance.
c. Role of Other Federal Agencies
(1) Designate an onscene Senior Agency Official
(2) Activate agency emergency response personnel and deploy them to the scene
(3) Deploy FRMAC assets
(4) Deploy Advisory Team representatives
(5) Keep the LFA and FEMA informed of status of response activities and
(6) Coordinate all State requests and offsite activities with the LFA and FEMA, as appropriate.

3. Response Operations

The following describes the general operational structure for meeting Federal agency roles and responsibilities in response to a radiological emergency. At the headquarters level, the LFA, FEMA, and other Federal agencies (OFAs) will generally exchange liaison personnel and maintain staffs at their EOCs to support their respective onscene operations. Federal agencies may also activate a regional or field office EOC in support of the emergency. Figure II-2 provides a graphic depiction of the onscene structure.

a. Joint Operations Center (JOC)

The JOC(1) is established by the LFA under the operational control of the Federal OSC as the focal point for management and direction of onsite activities, establishment of State requirements and priorities, and coordination of the overall Federal response. The JOC may be established in a separate onscene location or collocated with an existing emergency operations facility. The following elements may be represented in the JOC:

(1) LFA staff and onsite liaison
(2) FEMA/DFO liaison
(3) FRMAC liaison
(4) Advisory Team liaison
(5) Other Federal agency liaison, as needed
(6) LFA Public information liaison
(7) LFA Congressional liaison and
(8) State and local liaison.
b. Disaster Field Office (DFO)

The DFO is established by FEMA as the focal point for the coordination and provision of non-radiological resource support based on coordinated State requirements/priorities. The DFO is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local authorities and other Federal agencies. The following elements may be represented in the DFO:

(1) LFA liaison
(2) Other appropriate Federal agency personnel
(3) State and local liaison
(4) Public information liaison and
(5) Congressional liaison.
c. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC)

The FRMAC is established by DOE (with subsequent transfer to EPA for intermediate and long-term actions) for the coordination of Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities with that of State and local agencies. The FRMAC is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local authorities and other Federal agencies. The following elements may be represented in the FRMAC:

(1) DOE/DOE contractor technical staff and capabilities
(2) EPA/EPA contractor technical staff and capabilities
(3) DOC technical staff and capabilities
(4) LFA technical liaison
(5) DOE public information liaison
(6) Other Federal agency liaisons, as needed
(7) State and local liaison and
(8) DFO liaison.
d. Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health

The Advisory Team is established by representatives from EPA, USDA, HHS, and other Federal agencies as needed for the provision of interagency coordinated advice and recommendations to the State and LFA concerning environmental, food, and health matters. For the ease of transfer of radiological monitoring and assessment data and coordination with Federal, State, and local representatives, the Advisory Team is normally collocated with the FRMAC.

e. Joint Information Center (JIC)

The JIC(2) is established by the LFA, under the operational control of the LFA-designated Public Information Officer, as a focal point for the coordination and provision of information to the public and media concerning the Federal response to the emergency. The JIC is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies. The following elements should be represented at the JIC:

(1) LFA Public Information Officer and staff
(2) FEMA Public Information Officer and staff
(3) Other Federal agency Public Information, as needed
(4) State and local Public Information Officers and
(5) Owner/Operator Public Information Officers and staff.

4. Response Deactivation

a. Each agency will discontinue emergency response operations when advised that Federal assistance is no longer required from their agency or when its statutory responsibilities have been fulfilled. Prior to discontinuing its response operation, each agency should discuss its intent to do so with the LFA, FEMA, and the State.

b. The LFA will consult with participating Federal agencies and the State and local government to determine when the Federal information coordination operations at the JIC should be terminated. This will occur normally at a time when the rate of information generated and coordinated by the LFA has decreased to the point where it can be handled through the normal day-to-day coordination process. The LFA will inform the other participants of their intention to deactivate Federal information coordination operations at the JIC and advise them of the procedures for continued coordination of information pertinent to recovery from the radiological emergency.

c. FEMA will consult with the LFA, other Federal agencies, and the State(s) as to when the onscene coordination of non- radiological assistance is no longer required. Prior to ending operations at the DFO, FEMA will inform all participating organizations of the schedule for doing so.

d. The LFA will terminate JOC operations and the Federal response after consulting with FEMA, other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials, and after determining that onscene Federal assistance is no longer required.

e. The agency managing the FRMAC will consult with the LFA, FEMA, other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials to determine when a formal FRMAC structure and organization is no longer required. Normally, this will occur when operations move into the recovery phase and extensive Federal multi-agency resources are no longer required to augment State and local radiological monitoring and assessment activities.

5. Recovery

a. The State or local governments have the primary responsibility for planning the recovery of the affected area. (The term recovery as used here encompasses any action dedicated to the continued protection of the public and resumption of normal activities in the affected area.) Recovery planning will be initiated at the request of the States, but it will generally not take place until after the initiating conditions of the emergency have stabilized and immediate actions to protect public health and safety and property have been accomplished. The Federal Government will, on request, assist the State and local governments in developing offsite recovery plans, prior to the deactivation of the Federal response. The LFA will coordinate the overall activity of Federal agencies involved in the recovery process.

b. The radiological monitoring and assessment activities will be terminated when the EPA, after consultation with the LFA and other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials, determines that:

(1) There is no longer a threat to the public health and safety or to the environment,
(2) State and local resources are adequate for the situation, and
(3) There is mutual agreement of the agencies involved to terminate the response.


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1. For NRC reactor licensees, the JOC is within the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF). The EOF would be staffed in accordance with the owner/operator's site-specific Emergency Plan.

2. For NRC licensees, the Federal JIC is within the JIC established by the owner/operator.