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The concept of operations for a response provides for the designation of one agency as the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and for the establishment of onscene, interagency response centers. The FRERP describes both the responsibilities of the LFA and other Federal agencies that may be involved and the functions of each of the onscene centers.
The concept of operations recognizes the preeminent role of State and local governments for determining and implementing any measures to protect life, property, and the environment in areas not under the control of a Federal agency.
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The agency that is responsible for leading and coordinating all aspects of the Federal response is referred to as the LFA and is determined by the type of emergency. In situations where a Federal agency owns, authorizes, regulates, or is otherwise deemed responsible for the facility or radiological activity causing the emergency and has authority to conduct and manage Federal actions onsite, that agency normally will be the LFA.
The following identifies the LFA for each specified type of radiological emergency.
The NRC is the LFA for an emergency that occurs at a fixed facility or regarding an activity licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State. These include, but are not limited to, commercial nuclear power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, DOE-owned gaseous diffusion facilities that are operating under NRC regulatory oversight, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers.
The LFA is either DOD or DOE, depending on which agency owns or authorizes operation of the facility. These emergencies may involve reactor operations, nuclear material and weapons production, radioactive material from nuclear weapons, or other radiological activities.
The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that occurs at a facility not licensed, owned, or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement State. These include facilities that possess, handle, store, or process radium or accelerator-produced radioactive materials.
The NRC is the LFA for an emergency that involves radiological material licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State.
The LFA is either DOD or DOE depending on which of these agencies has custody of the material at the time of the accident.
The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that involves radiological material not licensed or owned by a Federal agency or an Agreement State.
NASA is the LFA for NASA spacecraft missions. DOD is the LFA for DOD spacecraft missions. DOE and EPA provide technical assistance to DOD and NASA.
In the event of an emergency involving a joint U.S. Government and foreign government spacecraft venture containing radioactive sources and/or classified components, the LFA will be DOD or NASA, as appropriate. A joint U.S./foreign venture is defined as an activity in which the U.S. Government has an ongoing interest in the successful completion of the mission and is intimately involved in mission operations. A joint venture is not created by simply selling or supplying material to a foreign country for use in their spacecraft. DOE and EPA will provide technical support and assistance to the LFA.
The EPA is the LFA for an emergency that involves radioactive material from a foreign or unknown source that has actual, potential, or perceived radiological consequences in the United States, its Territories, possessions, or territorial waters. The foreign or unknown source may be a reactor (e.g., Chernobyl), a spacecraft containing radioactive material, radioactive fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices, imported radioactively contaminated material, or a shipment of foreign-owned radioactive material. Unknown sources of radioactive material refers to that material whose origin and/or radiological nature is not yet established. These types of sources include contaminated scrap metal or abandoned radioactive material. DOD, DOE, NASA, and NRC provide technical assistance to EPA.
In the event of an unforeseen type of emergency not specifically described in this Plan or a situation where conditions exist involving overlapping responsibility that could cause confusion regarding LFA role and responsibilities, DOD, DOE, EPA, NASA, and NRC will confer upon receipt of notification of the emergency to determine which agency is the LFA.
|Table II-1.-Identification of Lead Federal Agency for Radiological Emergencies|
|Type of emergency||Lead Federal agency|
|1. Nuclear Facility:|
|a. Licensed by NRC or an Agreement State||NRC|
|b. Owned or Operated by DOD or DOE||DOD or DOE|
|c. Not Licensed, Owned, or Operated by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State||EPA|
|2. Transportation of Radioactive Materials:|
|a. Shipment of Materials Licensed by NRC or an NRC. Agreement State||NRC|
|b. Materials Shipped by or for DOD or DOE||DOD or DOE|
|c. Shipment of Materials Not Licensed or Owned by a Federal Agency or an Agreement State||EPA|
|3. Satellites Containing Radioactive Materials||NASA or DOD|
|4. Impact from Foreign or Unknown Source||EPA|
|5. Other Types of Emergencies||LFAs confer|
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For fixed facilities and materials in transit, responses to radiological emergencies generally
do not depend on the initiating event. The coordinated response to contain or mitigate a
threatened or actual release of radioactive material would be essentially the same whether it
resulted from an accidental or deliberate act. For malevolent acts involving improvised
nuclear or radiation dispersal devices, the response is further complicated by the magnitude of
the threat and the need for specialized technical expertise/actions. Therefore, sabotage
and terrorism are not treated as separate types of emergencies rather, they are considered a
complicating dimension of the types listed in Table II-1.
The Atomic Energy Act directs the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to investigate all alleged or suspected criminal violations of the Act. Additionally, the FBI is legally responsible for locating any nuclear weapon, device, or material and for restoring nuclear facilities to their rightful custodians. In view of its unique responsibilities under the Atomic Energy Act (amended by the Energy Reorganization Act), the FBI has concluded formal agreements with the LFAs that provide for interface, coordination, and technical assistance in support of the FBI's mission.
Generally, for fixed facilities and materials in transit, the designated LFA and supporting agencies will perform the functions delineated in this plan and provide technical support and assistance to the FBI in the performance of its mission. It would be difficult to outline all the possible scenarios arising from criminal or terrorist activity. As a result, the Federal response will be tailored to the specific circumstances of the event at hand. For those emergencies where an LFA is not specifically designated (e.g., improvised nuclear device), the Federal response will be guided by the established interagency agreements and contingency plans. In accordance with these agreements and plans, the signatory agency(ies) supporting the FBI will coordinate and manage the technical portion of the response and activate/request assistance under the FRERP for measures to protect the public health and safety. In all cases, the FBI will manage and direct the law enforcement and intelligence aspects of the response coordinating activities with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies within the framework of the FRERP and/or as provided for in established interagency agreements or plans.
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The LFA will lead and coordinate all Federal onscene actions and assist State and local governments in determining measures to protect life, property, and the environment. The LFA will ensure that FEMA and other Federal agencies assist the State and local government agencies in implementing protective actions, if requested by the State and local government agencies.
The LFA will coordinate Federal response activities from an onscene location, referred to as the Joint Operations Center (JOC). Until the LFA has established its base of operations in a JOC, the LFA will accomplish that coordination from another LFA facility, usually a Headquarters operations center.
In the absence of existing agreements for radiological emergencies occurring on or with possible consequences to Indian tribal lands, DOI will provide liaison between federally recognized Indian tribal governments and LFA, State, and local agencies for coordination of response and protective action efforts. Additionally, DOI will advise and assist the LFA on economic, social, and political matters in the United States insular areas should a radiological emergency occur.
The LFA will oversee the onsite response monitor and support owner or operator activities (when there is an owner or operator) provide technical support to the owner or operator, if requested and serve as the principal Federal source of information about onsite conditions. The LFA will provide a hazard assessment of onsite conditions that might have significant offsite impact and ensure onsite measures are taken to mitigate offsite consequences.
DOE has the initial responsibility for coordinating the offsite Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance during the response to a radiological emergency. In a prolonged response, EPA will assume the responsibility for coordinating the assistance at some mutually agreeable time, usually after the emergency phase.
Some of the participating Federal agencies may have radiological planning and emergency responsibilities as part of their statutory authority, as well as established working relationships with State counterpart agencies. The monitoring and assessment activity, coordinated by DOE, does not alter those responsibilities but complements them by providing for coordination of the initial Federal radiological monitoring and assessment response activity.
Federal offsite monitoring and assessment activities will be coordinated with those of the
State. Federal agency plans and procedures for implementing this monitoring and
assessment activity are designed to be compatible with the radiological emergency planning
requirements for State, local governments, specific facilities, and existing memoranda of
understanding and interagency agreements.
DOE may respond to a State or LFA request for assistance by dispatching a Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) team. If the situation requires more assistance than a RAP team can provide, DOE will alert or activate additional resources. These resources may include the establishment of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) to be used as an onscene coordination center for Federal radiological assessment activities. Federal and State agencies are encouraged to collocate their radiological assessment activities.
Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities will be activated as a component of an FRERP response or pursuant to a direct request from State or local governments, other Federal agencies, licensees for radiological materials, industries, or the general public after evaluating the magnitude of the problem and coordinating with the State(s) involved.
DOE and other participating Federal agencies may learn of an emergency when they are alerted to a possible problem or receive a request for radiological assistance. DOE will maintain national and regional coordination offices as points of access to Federal radiological emergency assistance. Requests for Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance will generally be directed to the appropriate DOE radiological assistance Regional Coordinating Office. Requests also can go directly to DOE's Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, DC. When other agencies receive requests for Federal radiological monitoring and assessment assistance, they will promptly notify the DOE EOC.
Prior to assuming responsibility for the FRMAC, EPA will:
Agencies carrying out responsibilities related to radiological monitoring and assessment during a Federal response also will coordinate their activities with FRMAC. This coordination will not limit the normal working relationship between a Federal agency and its State counterparts nor restrict the flow of information from that agency to the States. The radiological monitoring and assessment responsibilities of the other Federal agencies include:
(1) Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Federal protective action recommendations provide advice to State and local governments on measures that they should take to avoid or reduce exposure of the public to radiation from a release of radioactive material. This includes advice on emergency actions such as sheltering, evacuation, and prophylactic use of stable iodine. It also includes longer term measures to avoid or minimize exposure to residual radiation or exposure through the ingestion pathway such as restriction of food, temporary relocation, and permanent resettlement.
The LFA will assist State and local authorities, if requested, by advising them on protective actions for the public. The development or evaluation of protective action recommendations will be based upon the Protective Action Guides (PAGs) issued by EPA and HHS. In providing such advice, the LFA will use advice from other Federal agencies with technical expertise on those matters whenever possible. The LFA's responsibilities for the development, evaluation, and presentation of protective action recommendations are to:
Advice on environment, food, and health matters will be provided to the LFA through the Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health (Advisory Team) consisting of representatives of EPA, HHS, and USDA supported by other Federal agencies, as warranted by the circumstances of the emergency. The Advisory Team provides direct support to the LFA and has no independent authority. The Advisory Team will not release information or make recommendations to the public unless authorized to do so by the LFA. The Advisory Team will select a chair for the Team. The Advisory Team will normally collocate with the FRMAC.
For emergencies with potential for causing widespread radiological contamination where no onscene FRMAC is established, the functions of the Advisory Team may be accomplished in the LFA response facility in Washington, DC.
The primary role of the Advisory Team is to provide a mechanism for timely, interagency coordination of advice to the LFA, States, and other Federal agencies concerning matters related to the following areas:
FEMA will coordinate the provision of non-radiological (i.e., not related to radiological monitoring and assessment) Federal resources and assistance to affected State and local governments. The Federal non-radiological resource and assistance coordination function will be performed at the Disaster Field Office (DFO) (or other appropriate location established by FEMA).
In order to properly coordinate activities, Federal agencies responding to requests for non- radiological support or directly providing such support under statutory authorities will provide liaison personnel to the DFO. The following indicates types of assistance that may be provided by Federal agencies as needed or requested:
Public information coordination is most effective when the owner/operator, Federal, State, local, and other relevant information sources participate jointly. The primary location for linking these sources is the Joint Information Center (JIC).
Prior to the establishment of Federal operations at the JIC, it may be necessary to release Federal information regarding public health and safety. In these instances, Federal agencies will coordinate with the LFA and the State in advance or as soon as possible after the information has been released.
This coordination will accomplish the following: compile information about the status of the emergency, response actions, and instructions for the affected population coordinate all information from various sources with the other Federal, State, local, and non-governmental response organizations allow various sources to work cooperatively, yet maintain their independence in disseminating information disseminate timely, consistent, and accurate information to the public and the news media and establish coordinated arrangements for dealing with citizen inquiries.
The LFA is responsible for information on the status of the overall Federal response, specific LFA response activities, and the status of onsite conditions.
The LFA will:
FEMA will assist the LFA in coordinating non-radiological information among Federal agencies and with the State. When mutually agreeable, FEMA may assume responsibility from the LFA for coordinating Federal public information. Should this occur, it will usually be after the onsite situation has been stabilized and recovery efforts have begun.
All Federal agencies with an operational response role under the FRERP will coordinate public information activities at the JIC. Each Federal agency will provide information on the status of its response and on technical information.
Federal agencies will coordinate their responses to Congressional requests for information with the LFA. Points of contact for this function are the Congressional Liaison Officers. All Federal agency Congressional Liaison Officers and Congressional staffs seeking site-specific information about the emergency should contact the LFA headquarters Congressional Affairs Office. Congress may request information directly from any Federal agency. Any agency responding to such requests should inform the LFA as soon as feasible.
The LFA will report to the President and keep the White House informed on all aspects of the emergency. The White House may request information directly from any Federal agency. Any agency responding to such requests should inform the LFA as soon as feasible. The LFA will submit reports to the White House. The initial report should cover, if possible, the nature of and prognosis for the radiological situation causing the emergency and the actual or potential offsite radiological impact. Subsequent reports by the LFA should cover the status of mitigation, corrective actions, protective measures, and overall Federal response to the emergency. Federal agencies should provide information related to the technical and radiological aspects of the response directly to the LFA. FEMA will compile information related to the non-radiological resource support aspects of the response and submit to the LFA for inclusion in the report(s).
In the event of an environmental impact or potential impact upon the United States, its possessions, Territories, or territorial waters from a radiological emergency originating on foreign soil or, conversely, a domestic incident with an actual or potential foreign impact, the LFA will immediately inform DOS (which has responsibility for official interactions with foreign governments). The LFA will keep DOS informed of all Federal response activities. The DOS will coordinate notification and information gathering activities with foreign governments, except in cases where existing bilateral agreements permit direct communication. Where the LFA has existing bilateral agreements that permit direct exchange of information, those agencies should keep DOS informed of consultations with their foreign counterparts. Agency officials should take care that consultations do not exceed the scope of the relevant agreement(s). The LFA will ensure that any offers of assistance to or requests from foreign governments are coordinated with DOS.
Table II-2 provides an overview of the responsible Federal agencies for major response functions.
|Table II-2.-Response Function Overview|
|Response action||Responsible agency|
|(1) Maintain cognizance of the Federal response conduct and manage Federal onsite actions.||LFA|
|(2) Coordinate Federal offsite radiological monitoring and assessment:|
|-Intermediate and Long-Term Response||EPA|
|(3) Develop and evaluate recommendations for offsite protective actions for the public.||LFA, in coordination with other agencies.|
|(4) Present recommendations for offsite protective actions to the appropriate State and/or local officials||LFA, FEMA, in conjunction with other Federal agencies when practical.|
|(5) Coordinate Federal offsite non-radiological resource support.||FEMA|
|(6) Coordinate release of Federal information to the LFA after public. mutual agreement.||FEMA|
|(7) Coordinate release of Federal information to LFA.||Congress|
|(8) Provide reports to the President and keep the White House informed on all aspects of the emergency.||LFA|
|(9) Coordinate international aspects and make DOS as required international notifications. appropriate.||LFA|
|(10) Coordinate the law enforcement aspects of a criminal act involving radioactive material.||DOJ/FBI|
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The Federal response is divided into five stages: Notification, Activation and Deployment, Response Operations, Response Deactivation, and Recovery.
The owner or operator of the facility or radiological activity is generally the first to become aware of a radiological emergency and is responsible for notifying the State and local authorities and the LFA. The notification should include:
If any Federal agency receives notification from any source other than FEMA or the LFA, the agency will notify the LFA. See Figure II-1 for the notification process.
Once notified, each agency will respond according to its plan. The LFA will assess the technical response requirements and cause the activation and deployment of response components. FEMA, in conjunction with the LFA, will coordinate the non-radiological assistance in support of State and local governments. Initially, the LFA, FEMA, and other Federal agencies will coordinate response actions from their headquarters locations, usually from their respective headquarters EOCs.
The following describes the general operational structure for meeting Federal agency roles and responsibilities in response to a radiological emergency. At the headquarters level, the LFA, FEMA, and other Federal agencies (OFAs) will generally exchange liaison personnel and maintain staffs at their EOCs to support their respective onscene operations. Federal agencies may also activate a regional or field office EOC in support of the emergency. Figure II-2 provides a graphic depiction of the onscene structure.
The JOC(1) is established by the LFA under the operational control of the Federal OSC as the focal point for management and direction of onsite activities, establishment of State requirements and priorities, and coordination of the overall Federal response. The JOC may be established in a separate onscene location or collocated with an existing emergency operations facility. The following elements may be represented in the JOC:
The DFO is established by FEMA as the focal point for the coordination and provision of non-radiological resource support based on coordinated State requirements/priorities. The DFO is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local authorities and other Federal agencies. The following elements may be represented in the DFO:
The FRMAC is established by DOE (with subsequent transfer to EPA for intermediate and long-term actions) for the coordination of Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities with that of State and local agencies. The FRMAC is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local authorities and other Federal agencies. The following elements may be represented in the FRMAC:
The Advisory Team is established by representatives from EPA, USDA, HHS, and other Federal agencies as needed for the provision of interagency coordinated advice and recommendations to the State and LFA concerning environmental, food, and health matters. For the ease of transfer of radiological monitoring and assessment data and coordination with Federal, State, and local representatives, the Advisory Team is normally collocated with the FRMAC.
The JIC(2) is established by the LFA, under the operational control of the LFA-designated Public Information Officer, as a focal point for the coordination and provision of information to the public and media concerning the Federal response to the emergency. The JIC is established at an onscene location in coordination with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies. The following elements should be represented at the JIC:
a. Each agency will discontinue emergency response operations when advised that Federal assistance is no longer required from their agency or when its statutory responsibilities have been fulfilled. Prior to discontinuing its response operation, each agency should discuss its intent to do so with the LFA, FEMA, and the State.
b. The LFA will consult with participating Federal agencies and the State and local government to determine when the Federal information coordination operations at the JIC should be terminated. This will occur normally at a time when the rate of information generated and coordinated by the LFA has decreased to the point where it can be handled through the normal day-to-day coordination process. The LFA will inform the other participants of their intention to deactivate Federal information coordination operations at the JIC and advise them of the procedures for continued coordination of information pertinent to recovery from the radiological emergency.
c. FEMA will consult with the LFA, other Federal agencies, and the State(s) as to when the onscene coordination of non- radiological assistance is no longer required. Prior to ending operations at the DFO, FEMA will inform all participating organizations of the schedule for doing so.
d. The LFA will terminate JOC operations and the Federal response after consulting with FEMA, other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials, and after determining that onscene Federal assistance is no longer required.
e. The agency managing the FRMAC will consult with the LFA, FEMA, other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials to determine when a formal FRMAC structure and organization is no longer required. Normally, this will occur when operations move into the recovery phase and extensive Federal multi-agency resources are no longer required to augment State and local radiological monitoring and assessment activities.
a. The State or local governments have the primary responsibility for planning the recovery of the affected area. (The term recovery as used here encompasses any action dedicated to the continued protection of the public and resumption of normal activities in the affected area.) Recovery planning will be initiated at the request of the States, but it will generally not take place until after the initiating conditions of the emergency have stabilized and immediate actions to protect public health and safety and property have been accomplished. The Federal Government will, on request, assist the State and local governments in developing offsite recovery plans, prior to the deactivation of the Federal response. The LFA will coordinate the overall activity of Federal agencies involved in the recovery process.
b. The radiological monitoring and assessment activities will be terminated when the EPA, after consultation with the LFA and other participating Federal agencies, and State and local officials, determines that:
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1. For NRC reactor licensees, the JOC is within the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF). The EOF would be staffed in accordance with the owner/operator's site-specific Emergency Plan.
2. For NRC licensees, the Federal JIC is within the JIC established by the owner/operator.